Primary standard for nanoflow rates, In proceedings of MFHS 2014

Lucas, P., Petter, H.T., Sparreboom, W., Lötters, J.C., "Primary standard for nanoflow rates, In proceedings of MFHS 2014" – 2nd International Conference on MicroFluidic Handling Systems, Freiburg, Germany, 2014.

Abstract:
An increasing number of microfluidic systems operate at flow rates below 1 µL/min. Applications include (implanted) mirco pumps for drug delivery, liquid chromatography and micro reactors. For the applications where the absolute accuracy is important, a proper calibration is required. However, with standard calibration facilities, flow rate calibrations below, say, 1 µL/min are not feasible because of a too large calibration uncertainty. In the current research it is proposed to achieve a traceable flow rate by means of a temporal temperature gradient. When the fluid properties, starting mass and temperature gradient are known, this principle yields a direct link to SI-units, which makes it a primary standard. In this paper it will be shown that this principle enables flow rate uncertainties in the order of 2 to 3% for flow rates from 30 to 1500 nL/min.

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